To see is to forget the name of the thing one sees

21 August 2009


Paul Valéry

Paul Valéry

To see is to forget the name of the thing one sees.” This is a quote frequently attributed to Paul Valéry, and the line has a quality that is at once both searching and poetic, making the attribution reasonable. I don’t know if Valéry actually said it (I can’t find the source of the quote), but I think of this line every once in a while: my mind returns to it as to an object of fascination, like an intellectual fetish. A good aphorism is perennially pregnant with meaning, and always repays further meditation.

If seeing is forgetting the name of the thing one sees, and mutatis mutandis for the aesthetic experiences that follow from the other senses — e.g., to taste is to forget the name of thing one tastes, and so forth — we may take the idea further and insist that it is the forgetting of not only the name but of all the linguistic (i.e., formal) accretions, all categorizations, and all predications, that enables us to experience the thing-in-itself (to employ a Kantian locution). What we are describing is the pursuit of prepredicative experience after the fact (to employ a Husserlian locution).

This is nothing other than the familiar theme of seeking a pure aesthetic experience unmediated by the intellect, undistracted by conceptualization, unmarred by thought — seeing without thinking the seen. In view of this, can we take the further step, beyond the generalization of naming, extending the conceit to all linguistic formalizations, so that we arrive at a pure aesthesis of thought? Can we say that to think is to forget the name of the thing one thinks?

The pure aesthesis of thought, to feel a thought as one feels an experience of the senses, would be thought unmediated by the conventions of naming, categories, predication, and all the familiar machinery of the intellect, i.e., thought unmediated by the accretions of consciousness. It would be thought without all that we usually think of as being thought. Is such thought even possible? Is this, perhaps, unconscious thought? Is Freud the proper model for a pure aesthesis of thought? Possible or not, conscious or not, Freudian or not, the pursuit of such thought would constitute an effort of thought that must enlarge our intellectual imagination, and the enlargement of our imagination is ultimately the enlargement of our world.

Wittgenstein famously wrote that the limits of my language are the limits of my world (Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 5.6 — this is another wonderful aphorism that always repays further meditation). But the limits of language can be extended; we can systematically seek to transcend the limits of our language and thus the limits of our world, or we can augment our language and thus augment our world. Russell, Wittgenstein’s mentor and one-time collaborator, rather than focusing on limits of the self, developed an ethic of impersonal self-enlargement, i.e., the transgression of limits. In the last chapter of his The Problems of Philosophy Russell wrote:

All acquisition of knowledge is an enlargement of the Self, but this enlargement is best attained when it is not directly sought. It is obtained when the desire for knowledge is alone operative, by a study which does not wish in advance that its objects should have this or that character, but adapts the Self to the characters which it finds in its objects. This enlargement of Self is not obtained when, taking the Self as it is, we try to show that the world is so similar to this Self that knowledge of it is possible without any admission of what seems alien. The desire to prove this is a form of self-assertion and, like all self-assertion, it is an obstacle to the growth of Self which it desires, and of which the Self knows that it is capable. Self-assertion, in philosophic speculation as elsewhere, views the world as a means to its own ends; thus it makes the world of less account than Self, and the Self sets bounds to the greatness of its goods. In contemplation, on the contrary, we start from the not-Self, and through its greatness the boundaries of Self are enlarged; through the infinity of the universe the mind which contemplates it achieves some share in infinity.

The obvious extension of this conception of impersonal self-enlargement to an ethics of thought enjoins the self-enlargement of the intellect, the transgression of the limits of the intellect. It is the exercise of imagination that enlarges the intellect, and a great many human failures that we put to failures of understanding and cognition are in fact failures of imagination.

The moral obligation of self-enlargement is a duty of intellectual self-transgression. As Nietzsche put it: “A very popular error: having the courage of one’s convictions; rather it is a matter of having the courage for an attack on one’s convictions!”

. . . . .

Since the above I have written more on the same in Of seeing and forgetting…

. . . . .

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872 – 1970) formulated an ethic of impersonal self-enlargement.

. . . . .


. . . . .

Grand Strategy Annex

. . . . .

project astrolabe logo smaller

. . . . .

7 Responses to “To see is to forget the name of the thing one sees”

  1. Niko Punin said

    “To see is to forget the name of the thing one sees.”

    This is something that I’m also fascinated by, as I have experienced such a state briefly on several occasions. I believe many religions, especially Zen Buddhism, might have formed around this experience.

    The interesting question for me is: “Is it possible to live one’s life in a state of pure experience, while all intellectual activity happens in the subconscious creating a ‘hunch’ or ‘instinct’ by which one acts? Or is such a state nothing but a utopistic vision?”

    • geopolicraticus said

      Dear Mr. Punin:

      Thank you for your insightful comment.

      Regarding your question as to whether it is possible to live life in a state of pure experience, I would suggest that, if not all of life, certainly much of life could be lived like this if only one has the level of focus requisite to sustaining such a state of mind. So I don’t regard this conception of a life of pure experience as being at all utopian, or idealistic in the sense of being impractical or unrealizable, although, if it happens, it certainly is rare and requires extraordinary intellectual discipline.

      It seems to me to be a separate question as to the role that intellectual activity would play in such a life. I would not consign it to being a “hunch” or an “instinct” though these may be fair enough ways to characterize the work in the intellect in a state of pure experience. As I suggested in what I wrote above, attaining a state of pure experience is something that I regard as an intellectual undertaking.

      I would also suggest that if a person could sustain the state of pure experience that it would no longer feel like an altered state of consciousness, and that the longer it was maintained the closer it would approximate that mundane experience from which it initially seems so distinct.

      Best wishes,

      Nick Nielsen

  2. Tibetan Buddhism. Living a solitary life in the high mountains. In a cave. Yes.

    LSD can give it to you but you reach a point where you are saying, Aren’t I ever going to come down?

  3. Lisa said

    “To see we must forget the name of the thing we are looking at.” Claude Monet. French Painter.

    • geopolicraticus said

      Interesting to know that this has also been attributed to Monet. Do you know the source?

      Best wishes,


  4. E.B. said

    Claude Monet is attributed with the quote, “To see we must forget the name of the thing we are looking at.”

    Where does Paul Valéry fit in?

    • geopolicraticus said

      The quote has been attributed to Monet, Valéry, and others. I have yet to see a textual citation that would definitively associate its origins with a particular individual.

      Best wishes,


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: